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Nobel Prize Winners of 2008 For Outstanding Achievement

Posted on: October 9, 2008

ABOUT THE NOBEL PRIZE

Since the year 1901, Nobel Prizes have been awarded to extraordinary achievers in the fields of literature, physiology or medicine, physics, chemistry and peace. These awards are administered by an international association called The Nobel Foundation based in Stockholm, Sweden. Any individual who is awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize receives a Medal, a Personal Diploma and a Cash Prize.

The Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation

The foundations of The Nobel Prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his will and left a large part of his wealth to the establishment of The Nobel Prize.

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel was born on 21st October, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. His father Immanuel Nobel was an engineer by profession and built bridges and buildings in Sweden. However, Alfred’s interest stretched far and wide beyond engineering. By the time he was 17 years old, Alfred had a command over a number of languages including English, Russian and French and had developed keep interest in English poetry and drama. Apart from literature, Alfred Nobel was a great chemist and his work on nitroglycerine to develop and ultimately patent the dynamite and the detonator is particularly noteworthy. Together the dynamite and the detonator helped in reducing costs of blasting, drilling, tunnel construction etc. to a great extent during that time. Alfred was also involved in social and peace promoting issues and was open about his views that were considered radical during those days.

NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS OF 2008

Continuing the tradition of honoring outstanding achievement in the fields of Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Physics, Chemistry and Peace, the following are The Nobel Prize winners of 2008:

Physiology or Medicine:

  1. Harald zur Hausen (1/2 of the prize), German, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
  2. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (1/4 of the prize), French, Regulation of Retrovirul Infection Unit, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
  3. Luc Montagnier (1/4 of the prize), French, World Foundation for Aids Research and Prevention, Paris, France.
Harald zur Hausen

Harald zur Hausen

Francoise-Barre-Sinoussi

Francoise-Barre-Sinoussi

Luc Montagnier

Luc Montagnier

Harald zur Hausen received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier received the Nobel Prize for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus.

Physics:

  1. Yoichiro Nambu (1/2 of the prize), American, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
  2. Makoto Kobayashi (1/4 of the prize), Japanese, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan.
  3. Toshihide Maskawa (1/4 of the prize), Japanese, Kyoto Sangyo University; Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
Yoichiro Nambu

Yoichiro Nambu

Makoto Kobayashi

Makoto Kobayashi

Toshihide Maskawa

Toshihide Maskawa

Yoichiro Nambu received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics. Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.

Chemistry:

  1. Osamu Shimomura (1/3 of the prize), American, Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, MA, USA.
  2. Martin Chalfie (1/3 of the prize), American, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
  3. Roger Y. Tsien (1/3 of the prize), American, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
Osamu Shimomura

Osamu Shimomura

Martin Chalfie

Martin Chalfie

Roger Y. Tsien

Roger Y. Tsien

Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien received the Nobel Prize for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP.

Literature:

  1. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio, French.
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio received the Nobel Prize because of his work as the author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.

Peace:

  1. Martti Ahtisaari, Finnish
Martti Ahtisaari

Martti Ahtisaari

Martti Ahtisaari received the Nobel Prize for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts.

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